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From an English translation of the Hungarian Wikipedia page [1]


The 301 parcels of Rákoskeresztúr New Public Cemetery is the resting place of many victims of reprisals after the 1956 revolution, including Imre Nagy. One of the most important historical sites of the Hungarian nation, including .

In Hungary - and probably all over the world - the only burial place that is clearly identified by mentioning the parcel number alone. Those who only heard a little about the parcel's story, about their name, also to the Revolution and the buried ones, including Imre Nagy, were prime ministers.

The parcel is not only a symbol of national struggle, defeat and resurrection, a symbol of the nation's many years of divide. Fifty years after the Revolution, the controversy around the legacy of the Revolution and the Communist regime is still controversial, the left-wing memorials of the anniversaries, and even the participants of the revolution on the political left, are often greeted with whistle in parcel 301.

The victims of retaliation include István Angyal , László Iván Kovács, József Dudás, János Szabó , Péter Mansfeld and Ilona Tóth and László Nickelsburg , who were executed on August 26, 1961 as the last victim of retaliation.

In 2008 , the decision of the National Memorial Committee removed the namespaces of the parcel 301 because 30-40 percent of the names were common law criminals and war criminals, not just the victims of communism .

Chronology and method of funeralEdit

After the revolution and communist retaliation claiming a large number of victims, there were buried here at different times, so that the parcels that were far removed from the entrance of the huge Gazprom (the largest cemetery in Europe) could not possibly be used for this purpose.

Géza Losonczy, still on his death day, 1957. On 21 December, they were laid off and probably buried that day at 301 parcels. József Szilágyi probably in 1958. They were buried here on April 24, as they were usually buried on the day of execution.

Imre Nagy, Pál Maléter and Miklós Gimes were different. They were executed on June 16 1958, and buried in the courtyard of the Kozmeti Street Kisfogság. Above it, they smashed a piece of bad office furniture and dirt. On February 24 1961, the coffins, tar paper and wire were changed, and transferred to the adjacent New Public Cemetery 301 parcels where (Imre Nagy was buried under the false name " Borbíró (Little Red Riding Hood)) were reburied again in an unmarked grave" - wrote János M. Rainer historian.

In a Kozma Street Prison, a ten-person brigade consisting of officers and others was set off on February 24, 1961 at 16:45. From 19.15, when full darkness into the New Public Cemetery 301 parcels where the 23 series of 8 sírhelyébe Peter Naszladi (born Arad, 1901. April 12 Zsuzsanna Moricz, mother's maiden name.) Placed under the code name by Miklós Gimes and Pál Maléter's coffin, was at the bottom. A series of 23 9 sírhelyébe Borbíró Little Red Riding Hood (born Párkánynánás , 1908 . December 25 was buried under the code name Imre Nagy, Eszter Nagy, mother's maiden name.) which was completed at 20.35. These surnames were only given to the administration of the cemetery and were not registered with any other body.

The method was to order the grave site in advance, without a name or a fictitious name, the tombstone was dug out and the burial was done by policemen. (In the case of Géza Losonczy, the police had to dig out the pit in a hurry.)

According to historian János Rainer M., the unpardonable expulsion of those executed for political reasons had continued for a good ten-year period in Hungary. This is proved by the fact that in parcel 301 not only the victims of the retaliation after the 1956 Revolution were buried. Here lies Pógyor Stephen example, the Christian Youth Organization scout leader, who died in 1953 in prison in the communist regime, but the location of the tomb in 1989, only to have known the folks. Here lies the controversial Lajos Tóth, executed in 1950 on the charge of the conspiracy against the state, the commander of the Air Force, nicknamed "Drum".

Re-searchEdit

The reconsideration of the tombs began in June 1988 following a secret state security command in which Károly Grósz ordered the head of the State Security Chief of the Interior Ministry, Chief of Staff of the New Year's Eve, Deputy Prime Minister, to find out where are the remnants of Imre Nagy and his companions.

At that time, the administration of the Home Office had no information on where the remains of Imre Nagy and his companions were buried, so they had to search for them. (This was not the first attempt either: in 1981, one-man research of one of the leaders of the BM's testing department ended unsuccessfully so further search was terminated.)

Colonel József Pajcsics, who in the summer of 1988 was deputy head of the department of the Interior Ministry's department, reported that he was granted permission for a day's research in the documents of Imre Nagy in the secret repository of the ministry. In the folder called "Drowswing", he found two map sketches and a handwritten report that eventually found the cemetery.

Relatives and the public were excluded from the research process (they did not know about it).

"When I got to the 301 parcel, amazing things came to me. It had covered high grass and scrub, the borders of which could not be established. The place of graves was indicated by sighs, they were not taken off. The parcel is approx. It was three kilometers from the main entrance, a largely barely accessible dirt road, " recalls József Pajcsics, senior officer in the research. Five years earlier, Miklós Vásárhelyi, similarly , wrote in the Literary Newspaper : " Soil is an invisible hole, and in the depths of a collapsed pit, the executed martyrs of the Revolution of 1956 rest. "

Demolishing Imre Nagy and his martyrs 1989 . March 29 Wikimedia Commons started. The excavation of the grave of Imre Nagy (301/1) was attended by archaeologist Alán Kralovánszky , Árpád Szabó, János Nemeskéri anthropologist and László Harsányi. Among the members of the family were Erzsébet Nagy , János Vészi, Katalin Jánosi, Ferenc Jánosi, Gimes Lucy, Alisa Halda , Gyenes Judith; besides them, they participated in the event: András B. Hegedűs , György Litván, Imre Mécs , József Csillag, Judit Ember . The Ministry of the Interiordocumented the events in a video.

The exploration works continued on March 30 and 31, 1989, by Miklós Gimes and Pál Maléter (301/2), and on 1 April by the discovery of the grave of József Szilágyi (301/3). On April 5, the long-term search for Géza Losonczy (301/8) was completed.

1989 On 6 April, the Imre Nagy died and was buried in the parcel (Miklós Gimes, Pál Maléter, József Szilágyi and Géza Losonczy). The bodies were lying in the grave across their faces, their hands tied with wire ropes. Imre Nagy was successfully identified by a surviving prosthesis and skull reconciliation. With Losonczy, the identification of interventions in autopsy helped.

The 301 parcel todayEdit

Some members of the democratic opposition had been commemorating the anniversary of execution in parcel 301 since the early '80s, subject to harassment. (There are many stories about it.) According to Imre Mécs, in 1986, he arrived with three American journalists at the parcel, but the captain of the bush forbade him to throw the flowers and the journalists took their notes and the film from their camera.)

In the parcel in 1992. The memorial of György Jovánovics, which was the winner of the 1989 Historical Justice Committee, was completed by the beginning of June.

The Alliance '56 carved in front of the National Pantheon Szekely gate erected on which it is displayed: Only through this gate léphetsz Hungarian soul. Behind it there is another inscription on the marble slab: " Deaths for the country were martyred ". The gate marks the beginning of the road leading to the 300 parcel. According to the sources, the Székely gateway, marked by "NATIONAL PANTHEON", was written by Imre Bosnyák, a well-known Hungarian governor and monk, in the Martyrs Justice Committee in 1992, originally between 301 and 298 parcels and then under public outcry it is the symbolic entrance of parcel 298. Other subtitles can not be read.

The parcel 301 from the main entrance of the cemetery can be reached on foot in about half an hour walk, with an extension of 111.5 x 65 meters.

  • 1956 is a memorial Paris Père-Lachaise cemetery is the following inscription: "Imre Nagy, Geza Losonczy, Miklos Gimes and all kivégzettjének the 1956 revolution" . Its establishment in 1986 October Tibor Meray proposed the Hungarian Human Rights League commemorative session of the French Senate building, Jacques Chirac received a proposal from the mayor of Paris city council for a memorial free of cost provided by the Hungarian emigration donations. The monument was opened in 1988 . On June 16, at the same time in Budapest, riot police beat up the demonstrators of Imre Nagy.
  • In 1989, György Schwajda wrote a piece entitled "Ballad of the Fool of 301 Parcel".
  • Sandor Balassa composer in 1997 in an orchestral piece written "301 parcel' address in memory of the deceased by 1997. On October 22, he introduced the Pécs Symphony Orchestra in Pest Vigadó with Howard Williams.
  • In 2005, János Gulyás produced a documentary entitled "Unknown - The Inconnu Group (parcel 301)" on the group that created 301 woodcuts in the parcel in 1988 and 1989.
  • In 2008, 30-40 percent of all names were names of public and war criminals. Forty percent was the failure of the list of engraved "martyrs" in the marble slab at the new commemorative cemetery in Rákoskeresztúri in parcels 298 and 301, so the signs were removed.